1. Guanosine 5′-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]), if added before GTP, blocks both Ca2+ efflux promoted by GTP and the effect of GTP on enhancement of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)-promoted Ca2+ release from preloaded microsomal vesicles. If, however, GTP[S] is added after GTP, it does not reverse the Ca2+ efflux promoted by GTP, nor does it inhibit IP3-promoted Ca2+ release. 2. The effect of GTP in enhancing IP3-promoted Ca2+ release is maintained after washing the microsomal vesicles free of added GTP. After this treatment, enhancement of IP3-promoted Ca2+ efflux can be observed in the absence of poly(ethylene glycol). 3. Electron microscopy shows that during GTP treatment of microsomal vesicles there is rapid production of very large vesicular structures, apparently produced by fusion of smaller vesicles. 4. Light-scattering changes are detectable during the fusion process. 5. Both Ca2+ efflux promoted by GTP and the enhancement of IP3-promoted Ca2+ release seen in the presence of GTP can probably be attributed to GTP-dependent vesicle fusion.

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