The capacity for gluconeogenesis in the isolated amphibian retina was found to be approx. 70-fold greater with lactate than with glutamate as the gluconeogenic precursor, 1426 versus 21 pmol of glucose incorporated into glycogen/h per mg of protein. It was also found that 11-15% of the glucosyl units in glycogen are derived from C3 metabolites of the glycolytic pathway, suggesting that lactate is recycled within the retina. In concert with these metabolic observations, a full complement of the gluconeogenic enzymes was detected in retinal homogenates. These included: glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, acetyl-CoA-dependent pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Agents that regulate the rate of gluconeogenesis in hepatic tissue were tested on the retina. At concentrations of glutamate and lactate that are presumed to be relevant physiologically, it was found that vasoactive intestinal peptide, ionophore A23187 and elevated [K+] each enhanced the rate of gluconeogenesis in Ringer containing 50 microM-glutamate, whereas in Ringer containing 8.5 mM-lactate these agents inhibited the rate of gluconeogenesis. Further, it was found that the classic gluconeogenic hormone glucagon inhibited gluconeogenesis in both glutamate- and lactate-containing Ringer. Retinal energy metabolism was found to be altered in lactate-containing Ringer, in that lactate production was suppressed completely. In addition, glycogen metabolism appeared to be dependent on increased cytosolic Ca2+ and was insensitive to increased retinal cyclic AMP.

This content is only available as a PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.