We have previously shown that recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1) and recombinant tumour necrosis factor (TNF) synergistically stimulate phospholipase A2 release from mesangial cells. We now report that treatment of mesangial cells with the ′-agonist salbutamol, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cholera toxin or forskolin, which all activate adenylate cyclase, increased release of phospholipase A2 activity. Likewise, addition of a membrane-permeant cyclic AMP (cAMP) analogue or the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine enhanced release of phospholipase A2 activity from mesangial cells. There was a lag period of about 8 h before a significantly enhanced secretion could be detected. Furthermore, actinomycin D or cycloheximide completely suppressed cAMP-stimulated secretion of phospholipase A2. Angiotensin II, the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 and a membrane-permeant cGMP analogue did not stimulate phospholipase A2 release from the cells. Treatment with indomethacin completely inhibited IL-1 ′- and TNF-stimulated PGE2 synthesis, without having any effect on phospholipase A2 secretion, thus excluding cytokine-induced PGE2 synthesis as the mediator of phospholipase A2 release. Neither IL-1 beta nor TNF induced any increase in intracellular cAMP in mesangial cells. Furthermore, incubation of the cells with 2′,5′-dideoxyadenosine, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, did not block cytokine-stimulated phospholipase A2 secretion. In addition, IL-1 beta and TNF synergistically interacted with forskolin to stimulate phospholipase A2 release from the cells. The protein kinase inhibitors H-8, staurosporine, K252a and amiloride inhibited IL-1 ′- and TNF-stimulated phospholipase A2 secretion. However, high concentrations that inhibit other protein kinases were needed. These observations suggest that IL-1 beta and TNF cause secretion of phospholipase A2 by a mechanism independent of cAMP. The signalling pathways used by IL-1 beta and TNF may involve a protein kinase that is probably different from protein kinase A or protein kinase C.

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