Casein kinase 2 activity as measured by phosphorylation of the peptide substrate Arg-Arg-Arg-Glu-Glu-Glu-Thr-Glu-Glu-Glu is increased by about 50% in extracts from insulin-treated epididymal fat-pads or isolated fat-cells after purification by Mono Q chromatography. Insulin acts to increase the Vmax. of the kinase. An acid-soluble protein with an apparent subunit molecular mass of about 22 kDa appears to be a substrate for casein kinase 2. The protein possesses a number of properties in common with the acid-soluble heat-stable 22 kDa protein which exhibits increased phosphorylation in rat adipose tissue exposed to insulin.

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