Rat liver cytosolic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase exhibits a diurnal rhythm of enzyme activity which coincides with the diurnal rhythm of HMG-CoA synthase protein. The peaks of activity and protein (determined by SDS/PAGE and immunoblotting) both occur at D10 (the tenth hour of the daily 12 h dark cycle). The peak of mRNA levels (measured by slot-blot hybridization of liver RNA) is slightly advanced with respect to that of protein, by about 4 h, and shows a maximum at D6. Cytosolic HMG-CoA synthase activity and protein in rats fed on a normal diet were approx. 2-fold higher during the peak at D10 than in the nadir at D2. HMG-CoA synthase mRNA levels were approx. 4-fold higher during the peak at D6 than in the nadir at D2. These results point to a transcriptional and translational regulation of the cytosolic HMG-CoA synthase.

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