Tamoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen protect isolated human low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) against copper-ion-dependent lipid peroxidation: 4-hydroxytamoxifen is more protective than tamoxifen or 17 beta-oestradiol. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen and 17 beta-oestradiol also prevent the increase in the electrophoretic mobility of LDL caused by exposure to copper ions, presumably by protection of the apoprotein B of LDL against oxidative modification. Our observations may help to account for the cardioprotective benefits reported to be associated with tamoxifen therapy and prophylaxis in breast cancer.

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