1. GLUT5 gene expression was studied in small intestine under a variety of conditions characterized by altered intestinal absorption of monosaccharides. 2. RNA-blotting studies showed that GLUT5 mRNA was abundantly expressed in rat and rabbit intestine and kidney, but it was not detected in heart or brown adipose tissue. GLUT5 mRNA levels were higher in the upper segments of the small intestine (duodenum and proximal jejunum) than in the lower segments (distal jejunum and ileum). 3. The intestinal expression of GLUT5 mRNA in rat proximal jejunum showed circadian rhythm. A 12-fold increase in GLUT5 mRNA levels was detected at the end of the light cycle and at the beginning of the dark cycle when compared with the early light period. In keeping with this, GLUT5 protein content in brush-border membranes was also increased at the beginning of the dark cycle compared with that in the light period. 4. In streptozotocin-induced diabetes an 80% increase in GLUT5 mRNA levels in mucosa from the proximal jejunum was detected under conditions in which enhanced intestinal absorption of monosaccharides has been reported. 5. The intestinal expression of GLUT5 mRNA showed regulation during perinatal development. Levels of GLUT5 mRNA were low during fetal life, increased progressively during the postnatal period and reached levels comparable with the adult state after weaning. Weaning on to a high-fat diet partially prevented the induction of GLUT5 gene expression. 6. Our results indicate that GLUT5 gene expression is tightly regulated in small intestine. Regulation involves maximal expression in the upper part of the small intestine, circadian rhythm, developmental regulation dependent on the fat and carbohydrate content in the diet at weaning and enhanced expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Furthermore, changes observed in intestinal GLUT5 expression correlate with reported alterations in intestinal absorption of fructose. This suggests a regulatory role for GLUT5 in fructose uptake by absorptive enterocytes.
Regulation of GLUT5 gene expression in rat intestinal mucosa: regional distribution, circadian rhythm, perinatal development and effect of diabetes
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A Castelló, A Gumá, L Sevilla, M Furriols, X Testar, M Palacín, A Zorzano; Regulation of GLUT5 gene expression in rat intestinal mucosa: regional distribution, circadian rhythm, perinatal development and effect of diabetes. Biochem J 1 July 1995; 309 (1): 271–277. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bj3090271
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