Nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite both inhibit respiration by brain submitochondrial particles, the former reversibly at cytochrome c oxidase, the latter irreversibly at complexes I–III. Both GSH (IC50 = 10 μM) and glucose (IC50 = 8 mM) prevented inhibition of respiration by peroxynitrite (ONOO-), but neither glucose (100 mM) nor GSH (100 μM) affected that by NO. Thus, unless ONOO- is formed within mitochondria it is unlikely to inhibit respiration in cells directly, because of reactions with cellular thiols and carbohydrates. However, the reversible inhibition of respiration at cytochrome c oxidase by NO is likely to occur (e.g. in the brain during ischaemia) and could be responsible for cytotoxicity.
Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite exert distinct effects on mitochondrial respiration which are differentially blocked by glutathione or glucose
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Ignacio LIZASOAIN, Maria A. MORO, Richard G. KNOWLES, Victor DARLEY-USMAR, Salvador MONCADA; Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite exert distinct effects on mitochondrial respiration which are differentially blocked by glutathione or glucose. Biochem J 15 March 1996; 314 (3): 877–880. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bj3140877
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