The steady-state kinetics of two multifunctional isoforms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) from maize leaves (a major isoform, ACCase1 and a minor isoform, ACCase2) have been investigated with respect to reaction mechanism, inhibition by two graminicides of the aryloxyphenoxypropionate class (quizalofop and fluazifop) and some cellular metabolites. Substrate interaction and product inhibition patterns indicated that ADP and Pi products from the first partial reaction were not released before acetyl-CoA bound to the enzymes. Product inhibition patterns did not match exactly those predicted for an ordered Ter Ter or a random Ter Ter mechanism, but were close to those postulated for an ordered mechanism. ACCase2 was about 1/2000 as sensitive as ACCase1 to quizalofop but only about 1/150 as sensitive to fluazifop. Fitting inhibition data to the Hill equation indicated that binding of quizalofop or fluazifop to ACCase1 was non-cooperative, as shown by the Hill constant (napp) values of 0.86 and 1.16 for quizalofop and fluazifop respectively. Apparent inhibition constant values (K´ from the Hill equation) for ACCase1 were 0.054 µM for quizalofop and 21.8 µM for fluazifop. On the other hand, binding of quizalofop or fluazifop to ACCase2 exhibited positive co-operativity, as shown by the napp values of 1.85 and 1.59 for quizalofop and fluazifop respectively. K´ values for ACCase2 were 1.7 mM for quizalofop and 140 mM for fluazifop. Kinetic parameters for the co-operative binding of quizalofop to maize ACCase2 were close to those of another multifunctional ACCase of limited sensitivity to graminicide, ACC220 from pea. Inhibition of ACCase1 by quizalofop was mixed-type with respect to acetyl-CoA or ATP, but the concentration of acetyl-CoA had the greater effect on the level of inhibition. Neither ACCase1 nor ACCase2 was appreciably sensitive to CoA esters of palmitic acid (16:0) or oleic acid (18:1). Approximate IC50 values were 10 µM (ACCase2) and 50 µM (ACCase1) for both CoA esters. Citrate concentrations up to 1 mM had no effect on ACCase1 activity. Above this concentration, citrate was inhibitory. ACCase2 activity was slightly stimulated by citrate over a broad concentration range (0.25–10 mM). The significance of possible effects of acyl-CoAs or citrate in vivo is discussed.

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