The L-II element (-149 to -126 bp) in the enhancer unit of the rat pyruvate kinase L (PKL) gene is required for cell-type-specific transcription and induction by carbohydrates. This element was found to bind multiple nuclear proteins with different heat stabilities. A heat-labile factor was shown to be hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4 by the electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA) using various competitor DNAs and anti-HNF4 serum. A heat-stable factor was purified from rat liver nuclear extract and was resolved as two protein bands migrating at about 33 kDa on SDS/polyacrylamide gels. Peptide sequence analysis revealed that these proteins were nuclear factor (NF) 1-L and NF1/Red1. The heat-stable factor was also identified as a member of the NF1 family by using various competitor DNAs and anti-NF1 serum in an EMSA. In addition, we found that a factor bound to the accessory site of the rat S14 gene, which is necessary for carbohydrate responsiveness of this gene, was also a member of the NF1 family, raising the possibility that the NF1 family is involved in the carbohydrate regulation of gene transcription by interactions with other proteins. The NF1 family members and HNF4 interacted with overlapping sequences of the L-II element, wherein the 5′ half-site was more critical for NF1 binding, and the 3′ site was more important for HNF4 binding. Co-transfection of a vector expressing either NF1-L or NF1/Red1 repressed the transcription of the PKL enhancer unit–chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion gene in HepG2 cells, whereas co-transfection of a vector expressing HNF4 activated the transcription of the same reporter gene. Furthermore NF1 family members antagonized the effect of HNF4 on PKL enhancer unit–CAT fusion gene expression when both expression plasmids were co-transfected. We conclude that NF1 family members and HNF4 regulate transcription of the PKL gene in an opposing manner by binding overlapping sequences of the L-II element.

This content is only available as a PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.