Measurement of nitrotyrosine in biological fluids and tissues is increasingly being used to monitor the production of reactive nitrogen species in vivo. The detection of nitrotyrosine in vivo has been reported with the use of a variety of methods including immunoassay, HPLC and GLC/MS. The validity of HPLC and immunoassays have been questioned with regard to their selectivity and sensitivity limits. In principle, the measurement of nitrotyrosine by GLC/MS permits a highly specific, highly sensitive and fully quantitative assay. The nitration of tyrosine under acidic conditions in the presence of nitrite is well documented. Derivatization for the full quantification of nitrotyrosine by using GLC/MS can lead to the artifactual nitration of tyrosine if performed under acidic conditions in the presence of nitrite. We describe a novel alkaline method for the hydrolysis and derivatization of nitrotyrosine and tyrosine, and demonstrate its applicability to the measurement of plasma concentrations of both free and protein-bound nitrotyrosine and tyrosine. A detection limit of 1 pg for nitrotyrosine and 100 pg for tyrosine has been achieved. Our method allows, for the first time, the analysis of free and protein-bound nitrotyrosine and tyrosine in biological samples. The plasma concentrations (means±S.E.M.) of free tyrosine and nitrotyrosine in eight normal subjects were 12±0.6 μg/ml and 14±0.7 ng/ml respectively. Plasma proteins contained tyrosine and nitrotyrosine at 60.7±1.7 μg/mg and 2.7±0.4 ng/mg respectively.
Analysis of free and protein-bound nitrotyrosine in human plasma by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method that avoids nitration artifacts
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Matthew T. FROST, Barry HALLIWELL, Kevin P. MOORE; Analysis of free and protein-bound nitrotyrosine in human plasma by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method that avoids nitration artifacts. Biochem J 1 February 2000; 345 (3): 453–458. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bj3450453
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