Regulatory factors bound to the human adenine nucleotide translocator-2 (ANT2) promoter have been mapped in HeLa cells by in vivo DNase I protection and ligation-mediated PCR amplification. Protein binding was detected at only three sites within the extended promoter region (to nt -703). One, starting at nt -61 and covering the TATA box and transcription start, most probably represents occupation by the transcription-initiation machinery. A repeated Sp1 element determined by in vitro studies to be the major activation element for the promoter was also protected in vivo on nucleotides responsible for strong binding to the zinc fingers. Occupation of two additional upstream Sp1 elements was not observed. The third site occupied in vivo was identified previously by in vitro studies as a unique silencer element. Treatment of cells with trichostatin A to induce hyperacetylation released the silencer-binding protein after 1h, but had no effect on the Sp1-activating elements. Prolonged treatment (24h) displaced Sp1 from the activating elements. These findings confirm and extend in vitro studies indicating that regulation of the ANT2 promoter is most probably exerted through a single pair of proximal Sp1-activating elements and an upstream silencer, and that chromatin organization plays a role in the interaction between the two.

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