Homology models of the active site of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) have identified phenylalanine 481 (Phe481) as a putative ligand-binding residue, its aromatic side chain being potentially capable of participating in π-π interactions with the benzene ring of ligands. We have tested this hypothesis by replacing Phe481 with tyrosine (Phe481 → Tyr), a conservative substitution, and with leucine (Phe481 → Leu) or glycine (Phe481 → Gly), two non-aromatic residues, and have compared the properties of the wild-type and mutant enzymes in microsomes prepared from yeast cells expressing the appropriate cDNA-derived protein. The Phe481 → Tyr substitution did not alter the kinetics [Km (µM) and Vmax (pmol/min per pmol) respectively] of oxidation of S-metoprolol (27; 4.60), debrisoquine (46; 2.46) or dextromethorphan (2; 8.43) relative to the respective wild-type values [S-metoprolol (26; 3.48), debrisoquine (51; 3.20) and dextromethorphan (2; 8.16)]. The binding capacities [Ks (µM)] of a range of CYP2D6 ligands to the Phe481 → Tyr enzyme (S-metoprolol, 22.8; debrisoquine, 12.5; dextromethorphan, 2.3; quinidine, 0.13) were also similar to those for the wild-type enzyme (S-metoprolol, 10.9; debrisoquine, 8.9; dextromethorphan, 3.1; quinidine, 0.10). In contrast, the Phe481 → Leu and Phe481 → Gly substitutions increased significantly (3-16-fold) the Km values of oxidation of the three substrates [S-metoprolol (120-124µM), debrisoquine (152-184µM) and dextromethorphan (20-31µM)]. Similarly, the Ks values of the ligands to Phe481 → Leu and Phe481 → Gly mutants were also increased 3 to 10-fold (S-metoprolol, 33.2-41.9µM; debrisoquine, 85-90µM; dextromethorphan, 15.7-18.8µM; quinidine 0.35-0.53µM). However, contrary to a recent proposal that Phe481 has the dominant role in the binding of substrates that undergo CYP2D6-mediated N-dealkylation routes of metabolism, the Phe481 → Gly substitution did not substantially decrease the capacity of the enzyme to N-deisopropylate metoprolol (wild-type, 1.12pmol/min per pmol of P450; Phe481 → Gly, 0.71), whereas an Asp301 → Gly substitution decreased the N-dealkylation reaction by 95% of the wild-type rate. Overall, our results are consistent with the proposal that Phe481 is a ligand-binding residue in the active site of CYP2D6 and that the residue interacts with ligands via a π-π interaction between its phenyl ring and the aromatic moiety of the ligand. However, the relative importance of Phe481 in binding is ligand-dependent; furthermore, its importance is secondary to that of Asp301. Finally, contrary to predictions of a recent homology model, Phe481 does not seem to have a primary role in CYP2D6-mediated N-dealkylation.
Influence of phenylalanine-481 substitutions on the catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 2D6
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Graham P. HAYHURST, Jacky HARLOW, Joey CHOWDRY, Esme GROSS, Emma HILTON, Martin S. LENNARD, Geoffrey T. TUCKER, S. Wynne ELLIS; Influence of phenylalanine-481 substitutions on the catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 2D6. Biochem J 15 April 2001; 355 (2): 373–379. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bj3550373
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