β2-Glycoprotein I (β2-GPI) is a plasma glycoprotein primarily synthesized in the liver. The interindividual variability of β2-GPI expression in subjects with various metabolic syndromes and disease states suggests that it may have clinical importance. However, the regulation of β2-GPI gene expression has not been clarified. To gain more insight into the control of β2-GPI gene expression, we cloned the 4.1-kb 5´-flanking region and characterized the proximal promoter of the β2-GPI gene in this study. Cis-acting elements required for β2-GPI promoter activity were identified with transient transfection assays in the hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Huh7 and in non-hepatic HeLa cells. Serial deletion analyses of the β2-GPI 5´-flanking sequence revealed that the region from −197 to +7 had strong promoter activity in hepatoma cells but not in HeLa cells. Truncation and site-directed mutagenesis of putative cis-elements within this region showing an atypical TATA box and a HNF-1 (hepatic nuclear factor-1) element were both essential for the β2-GPI promoter activity. Subsequent gel mobility shift assays confirmed the interaction of HNF-1α with the HNF-1 site residing downstream of the TATA box. Co-transfection of β2-GPI promoter-luciferase vector with HNF-1α expression vector in Huh7 and HNF-1-deficient HeLa cells demonstrated the transactivation effect of HNF-1α on β2-GPI promoter activity. In addition, overexpression of HNF-1α enhanced the endogenous β2-GPI expression. These results suggest that the atypical TATA box and HNF-1 cis-element are critical for β2-GPI transcription and HNF-1α may play an important role in cell-specific regulation of β2-GPI gene expression.
Cloning and characterization of the human beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2-GPI) gene promoter: roles of the atypical TATA box and hepatic nuclear factor-1alpha in regulating beta2-GPI promoter activity
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Hsueh-Hsiao WANG, An-Na CHIANG; Cloning and characterization of the human beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2-GPI) gene promoter: roles of the atypical TATA box and hepatic nuclear factor-1alpha in regulating beta2-GPI promoter activity. Biochem J 1 June 2004; 380 (2): 455–463. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bj20031610
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