The MAPs (microtubule-associated proteins) MAP1B and tau are well known for binding to microtubules and stabilizing these structures. An additional role for MAPs has emerged recently where they appear to participate in the regulation of transport of cargos on the microtubules found in axons. In this role, tau has been associated with the regulation of anterograde axonal transport. We now report that MAP1B is associated with the regulation of retrograde axonal transport of mitochondria. This finding potentially provides precise control of axonal transport by MAPs at several levels: controlling the anterograde or retrograde direction of transport depending on the type of MAP involved, controlling the speed of transport and controlling the stability of the microtubule tracks upon which transport occurs.

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