In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, arsenic detoxification involves the activation of Yap8, a member of the Yap (yeast AP-1-like) family of transcription factors, which in turn regulates ACR2 and ACR3, genes encoding an arsenate reductase and a plasma-membrane arsenite-efflux protein respectively. In addition, Yap1 is involved in the arsenic adaptation process through regulation of the expression of the vacuolar pump encoded by YCF1 (yeast cadmium factor 1 gene) and also contributing to the regulation of ACR genes. Here we show that Yap1 is also involved in the removal of ROS (reactive oxygen species) generated by arsenic compounds. Data on lipid peroxidation and intracellular oxidation indicate that deletion of YAP1 and YAP8 triggers cellular oxidation mediated by inorganic arsenic. In spite of the increased amounts of As(III) absorbed by the yap8 mutant, the enhanced transcriptional activation of the antioxidant genes such as GSH1 (γ- glutamylcysteine synthetase gene), SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1 gene) and TRX2 (thioredoxin 2 gene) may prevent protein oxidation. In contrast, the yap1 mutant exhibits high contents of protein carbonyl groups and the GSSG/GSH ratio is severely disturbed on exposure to arsenic compounds in these cells. These results point to an additional level of Yap1 contribution to arsenic stress responses by preventing oxidative damage in cells exposed to these compounds. Transcriptional profiling revealed that genes of the functional categories related to sulphur and methionine metabolism and to the maintenance of cell redox homoeostasis are activated to mediate adaptation of the wild-type strain to 2 mM arsenate treatment.
Contribution of Yap1 towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae adaptation to arsenic-mediated oxidative stress
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Regina A. Menezes, Catarina Amaral, Liliana Batista-Nascimento, Claudia Santos, Ricardo Boavida Ferreira, Fréderic Devaux, Elis C. A. Eleutherio, Claudina Rodrigues-Pousada; Contribution of Yap1 towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae adaptation to arsenic-mediated oxidative stress. Biochem J 1 September 2008; 414 (2): 301–311. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/BJ20071537
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