Cx (connexin) proteins are components of gap junctions which are aqueous pores that allow intercellular exchange of ions and small molecules. Mutations in Cx genes are linked to a range of human disorders. In the present review we discuss mutations in β-Cx genes encoding Cx26, Cx30, Cx30.3 and Cx31 which lead to skin disease and deafness. Functional studies with Cx proteins have given insights into disease-associated mechanisms and non-gap junctional roles for Cx proteins.

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