Autosomal-dominant missense mutations in LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) are a common genetic cause of PD (Parkinson's disease). LRRK2 is a multidomain protein with kinase and GTPase activities. Dominant mutations are found in the domains that have these two enzyme activities, including the common G2019S mutation that increases kinase activity 2–3-fold. However, there is also a genetic variant in some populations, G2385R, that lies in a C-terminal WD40 domain of LRRK2 and acts as a risk factor for PD. In the present study we show that the G2385R mutation causes a partial loss of the kinase function of LRRK2 and deletion of the C-terminus completely abolishes kinase activity. This effect is strong enough to overcome the kinase-activating effects of the G2019S mutation in the kinase domain. Hsp90 (heat-shock protein of 90 kDa) has an increased affinity for the G2385R variant compared with WT (wild-type) LRRK2, and inhibition of the chaperone binding combined with proteasome inhibition leads to association of mutant LRRK2 with high molecular mass native fractions that probably represent proteasome degradation pathways. The loss-of-function of G2385R correlates with several cellular phenotypes that have been proposed to be kinase-dependent. These results suggest that the C-terminus of LRRK2 plays an important role in maintaining enzymatic function of the protein and that G2385R may be associated with PD in a way that is different from kinase-activating mutations. These results may be important in understanding the differing mechanism(s) by which mutations in LRRK2 act and may also have implications for therapeutic strategies for PD.
The G2385R variant of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 associated with Parkinson's disease is a partial loss-of-function mutation
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Iakov N. Rudenko, Alice Kaganovich, David N. Hauser, Aleksandra Beylina, Ruth Chia, Jinhui Ding, Dragan Maric, Howard Jaffe, Mark R. Cookson; The G2385R variant of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 associated with Parkinson's disease is a partial loss-of-function mutation. Biochem J 15 August 2012; 446 (1): 99–111. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/BJ20120637
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