Pharmacological challenges to oncogenic Ras-expressing cancer cells have shown a novel type of cell death, ferroptosis, which requires intracellular iron. In the present study, we assessed ferroptosis following treatment of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells with several inhibitors of lysosomal activity and found that they prevented cell death induced by the ferroptosis-inducing compounds erastin and RSL3. Fluorescent analyses with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) sensor revealed constitutive generation of ROS in lysosomes, and treatment with lysosome inhibitors decreased both lysosomal ROS and a ferroptotic cell-death-associated ROS burst. These inhibitors partially prevented intracellular iron provision by attenuating intracellular transport of transferrin or autophagic degradation of ferritin. Furthermore, analyses with a fluorescent sensor that detects oxidative changes in cell membranes revealed that formation of lipid ROS in perinuclear compartments probably represented an early event in ferroptosis. These results suggest that lysosomal activity is involved in lipid ROS-mediated ferroptotic cell death through regulation of cellular iron equilibria and ROS generation.
An essential role for functional lysosomes in ferroptosis of cancer cells
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Seiji Torii, Ryosuke Shintoku, Chisato Kubota, Makoto Yaegashi, Ryoko Torii, Masaya Sasaki, Toshinobu Suzuki, Masanobu Mori, Yuhei Yoshimoto, Toshiyuki Takeuchi, Keiichi Yamada; An essential role for functional lysosomes in ferroptosis of cancer cells. Biochem J 15 March 2016; 473 (6): 769–777. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/BJ20150658
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