The potential biological consequences of oxidative stress and changes in glutathione levels include the oxidation of susceptible protein thiols and reversible covalent binding of glutathione to the –SH groups of proteins by S-glutathionylation. Mitochondria are central to the response to oxidative stress and redox signaling. It is therefore crucial to explore the adaptive response to changes in thiol-dependent redox status in these organelles. We optimized the purification protocol of glutathionylated proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and present a detailed proteomic analysis of the targets of protein glutathionylation in cells undergoing constitutive metabolism and after exposure to various stress conditions. This work establishes the physiological importance of the glutathionylation process in S. cerevisiae under basal conditions and provides evidence for an atypical and unexpected cellular distribution of the process between the cytosol and mitochondria. In addition, our data indicate that each oxidative condition (diamide, GSSG, H2O2, or the presence of iron) elicits an adaptive metabolic response affecting specific mitochondrial metabolic pathways, mainly involved in the energetic maintenance of the cells. The correlation of protein modifications with intracellular glutathione levels suggests that protein deglutathionylation may play a role in protecting mitochondria from oxidative stress. This work provides further insights into the diversity of proteins undergoing glutathionylation and the role of this post-translational modification as a regulatory process in the adaptive response of the cell.

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