Light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is a plant enzyme involved in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. POR reduces one of the double bonds of the protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) using NADPH and light. In the present study, we found out that phosphatidylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol are allosteric regulators of the nucleotide binding, which increase the affinity towards NADPH a 100-fold. Moreover, we showed for the first time that NADH can, like NADPH, form active complexes with Pchlide and POR, however, at much higher concentrations. Additionally, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) was shown to be the main factor responsible for the red shift of the fluorescence emission maximum of Pchlide:POR:NADPH complexes. Importantly, the emission maximum at 654 nm was obtained only for the reaction mixtures supplemented with MGDG and at least one of the negatively charged plant lipids. Moreover, the site-directed mutagenesis allowed us to identify amino acid residues that may be responsible for lipid binding and Pchlide coordination. Our experiments allowed us to identify six different Pchlide:POR complexes that differ in the fluorescence emission maxima of the pigment. The results presented here reveal the contribution of thylakoid lipids in the regulation of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway; however, the molecular mechanisms of this process are to be clarified.

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