The evasion of host immune defense is critical for pathogens to invade, establish infection and perpetuate in the host. The complement system is one of the first lines of innate immune defense in humans that destroys pathogens in the blood circulation. Activation of the complement system through direct encounter with pathogens or some other agents leads to osmolysis of pathogens, clearance of soluble immune complexes and recruitment of lymphocytes at the site of activation. Although malaria parasites are not exposed to the complement system owing to their intracellular development for most part of their life cycle in the human host, the extracellular stages must face the complement system of human or mosquito or both. In a recent issue of the Biochemical Journal, Sharma et al. reported that Plasmodiumfalciparum LCCL domain-containing protein 1 (PfCCp1) inhibited activation of the classical complement pathway and down-regulated effector responses of dendritic cells, which implicate PfCCp1 and related proteins in immunomodulation of the host that likely benefits the parasite. PfCCp1 belongs to a multi-domain protein family that exists as multimeric protein complexes. It needs to be investigated whether PfCCp1 or its multimeric protein complexes have an immunomodulatory effect in vivo and on the mosquito complement system

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