The type 2 isoenzyme is the most widely expressed transglutaminase in mammals displaying several intra- and extracellular activities depending on its location (protein modification, modulation of gene expression, membrane signalling and stabilization of cellular interactions with the extracellular matrix) in relation to cell death, survival and differentiation. In contrast with the appreciable knowledge about the regulation of the enzymatic activities, much less is known concerning its inducible expression, which is altered in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. In this context, we first summarize the gene's basic features including single-nucleotide polymorphism characterization, epigenetic DNA methylation and identification of regulatory regions and of transcription factor-binding sites at the gene promoter, which could concur to direct gene expression. Further aspects related to alternative splicing events and to ncRNAs (microRNAs and lncRNAs) are involved in the modulation of its expression. Notably, this important gene displays transcriptional variants relevant for the protein's function with the occurrence of at least seven transcripts which support the synthesis of five isoforms with modified catalytic activities. The different expression of the TG2 (type 2 transglutaminase) variants might be useful for dictating the multiple biological features of the protein and their alterations in pathology, as well as from a therapeutic perspective.
Spotlight on the transglutaminase 2 gene: a focus on genomic and transcriptional aspects
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Nicoletta Bianchi, Simone Beninati, Carlo M. Bergamini; Spotlight on the transglutaminase 2 gene: a focus on genomic and transcriptional aspects. Biochem J 15 May 2018; 475 (9): 1643–1667. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/BCJ20170601
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