Mitochondria play a central role in the maintenance of the naive state of embryonic stem cells. Many details of the mechanism remain to be fully elucidated. Solute carrier family 25 member 36 (Slc25a36) might regulate mitochondrial function through transporting pyrimidine nucleotides for mtDNA/RNA synthesis. Its physical role in this process remains unknown; however, Slc25a36 was recently found to be highly expressed in naive mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Here, the function of Slc25a36 was characterized as a maintenance factor of mESCs pluripotency. Slc25a36 deficiency (via knockdown) has been demonstrated to result in mitochondrial dysfunction, which induces the differentiation of mESCs. The expression of key pluripotency markers (Pou5f1, Sox2, Nanog, and Utf1) decreased, while that of key TE genes (Cdx2, Gata3, and Hand1) increased. Cdx2-positive cells emerged in Slc25a36-deficient colonies under trophoblast stem cell culture conditions. As a result of Slc25a36 deficiency, mtDNA of knockdown cells declined, leading to impaired mitochondria with swollen morphology, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and low numbers. The key transcription regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis also decreased. These results indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction leads to an inability to support the pluripotency maintenance. Moreover, down-regulated glutathione metabolism and up-regulated focal adhesion reinforced and stabilized the process of differentiation by separately enhancing OCT4 degradation and promoting cell spread. This study improves the understanding of the function of Slc25a36, as well as the relationship of mitochondrial function with naive pluripotency maintenance and stem cell fate decision.