TMEM165 was highlighted in 2012 as the first member of the Uncharacterized Protein Family 0016 (UPF0016) related to human glycosylation diseases. Defects in TMEM165 are associated with strong Golgi glycosylation abnormalities. Our previous work has shown that TMEM165 rapidly degrades with supraphysiological manganese supplementation. In this paper, we establish a functional link between TMEM165 and SPCA1, the Golgi Ca2+/Mn2+ P-type ATPase pump. A nearly complete loss of TMEM165 was observed in SPCA1-deficient Hap1 cells. We demonstrate that TMEM165 was constitutively degraded in lysosomes in the absence of SPCA1. Complementation studies showed that TMEM165 abundance was directly dependent on SPCA1's function and more specifically its capacity to pump Mn2+ from the cytosol into the Golgi lumen. Among SPCA1 mutants that differentially impair Mn2+ and Ca2+ transport, only the Q747A mutant that favors Mn2+ pumping rescues the abundance and Golgi subcellular localization of TMEM165. Interestingly, the overexpression of SERCA2b also rescues the expression of TMEM165. Finally, this paper highlights that TMEM165 expression is linked to the function of SPCA1.

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