S-nitrosylation, the post-translational modification of cysteines by nitric oxide, has been implicated in several cellular processes and tissue homeostasis. As a result, alterations in the mechanisms controlling the levels of S-nitrosylated proteins have been found in pathological states. In the last few years, a role in cancer has been proposed, supported by the evidence that various oncoproteins undergo gain- or loss-of-function modifications upon S-nitrosylation. Here, we aim at providing insight into the current knowledge about the role of S-nitrosylation in different aspects of cancer biology and report the main anticancer strategies based on: (i) reducing S-nitrosylation-mediated oncogenic effects, (ii) boosting S-nitrosylation to stimulate cell death, (iii) exploiting S-nitrosylation through synthetic lethality.

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