Plants are surrounded by a vast diversity of microorganisms. Limiting pathogenic microorganisms is crucial for plant survival. On the other hand, the interaction of plants with beneficial microorganisms promotes their growth or allows them to overcome nutrient deficiencies. Balancing the number and nature of these interactions is crucial for plant growth and development, and thus, for crop productivity in agriculture. Plants use sophisticated mechanisms to recognize pathogenic and beneficial microorganisms and genetic programs related to immunity or symbiosis. Although most research has focused on characterizing changes in the transcriptome during plant–microbe interactions, the application of techniques such as Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP) and Ribosome profiling allowed examining the dynamic association of RNAs to the translational machinery, highlighting the importance of the translational level of control of gene expression in both pathogenic and beneficial interactions. These studies revealed that the transcriptional and the translational responses are not always correlated, and that translational control operates at cell-specific level. In addition, translational control is governed by cis-elements present in the 5′mRNA leader of regulated mRNAs, e.g. upstream open reading frames (uORFs) and sequence-specific motifs. In this review, we summarize and discuss the recent advances made in the field of translational control during pathogenic and beneficial plant–microbe interactions.

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