Plants require the major macronutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) for normal growth and development. Their deficiency in soil directly affects vital cellular processes, particularly root growth and architecture. Their perception, uptake and assimilation are regulated by complex signalling pathways. To overcome nutrient deficiencies, plants have developed certain response mechanisms that determine developmental and physiological adaptations. The signal transduction pathways underlying these responses involve a complex interplay of components such as nutrient transporters, transcription factors and others. In addition to their involvement in cross-talk with intracellular calcium signalling pathways, these components are also engaged in NPK sensing and homeostasis. The NPK sensing and homeostatic mechanisms hold the key to identify and understand the crucial players in nutrient regulatory networks in plants under both abiotic and biotic stresses. In this review, we discuss calcium signalling components/pathways underlying plant responses to NPK sensing, with a focus on the sensors, transporters and transcription factors involved in their respective signalling and homeostasis.

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