Energy and metabolic homeostasis at the level of the whole body are dictated by the balance between nutrient intake/utilization, bioenergetic potential, and energy expenditure, which are tightly coupled with fed/fast cycles and circadian oscillation. Emerging literature has highlighted the importance of each of these mechanisms that are essential to maintain physiological homeostasis. Lifestyle changes predominantly associated with altered fed–fast and circadian cycles are well established to affect systemic metabolism and energetics, and hence contribute to pathophysiological states. Therefore, it is not surprising that mitochondria have emerged as being pivotal in maintaining physiological homeostasis through daily oscillations/fluctuations in nutrient inputs and light–dark/sleep–wake cycles. Moreover, given the inherent association between mitochondrial dynamics/morphology and functions, it is important to understand the phenomenological and mechanistic underpinnings of fed–fast and circadian cycles dependent remodeling of mitochondria. In this regard, we have summarized the current status of the field in addition to providing a perspective vis-a-vis the complexity of cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous signals that dictate mitochondrial dynamics. We also highlight the lacunae besides speculating on prospective efforts that will possibly redefine our insights into the diurnal orchestration of fission/fusion events, which are ultimately coupled to the mitochondrial output.

You do not currently have access to this content.