High temperatures in the field hinder bread wheat high-yield production, mainly because of the adverse effects of heat over photosynthesis. The Yaqui Valley, the main wheat producer region in Mexico, is a zone prone to have temperatures over 30°C. The aim of this work was to test the flag leaf photosynthetic performance in 10 bread wheat genotypes grown under high temperatures in the field. The study took place during two seasons (2019–2020 and 2020–2021). In each season, control seeds were sown in December, while heat-stressed were sown in late January to subject wheat to heat stress (HS) during the grain-filling stage. HS reduced Grain yield from 20 to 58% in the first season. HS did not reduce chlorophyll content and light-dependent reactions were unaffected in any of the tested genotypes. Rubisco, chloroplast fructose 1,6-biphosphatase (FBPase), and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activities were measured spectrophotometrically. Rubisco activity did not decrease under HS in any of the genotypes. FBPase activity was reduced by HS indicating that triose phosphate flux to starch synthesis was reduced, while SPS was not affected, and thus, sucrose synthesis was maintained. HS reduced aerial biomass in the 10 chosen genotypes. Genotypes SOKWB.1, SOKWB.3, and BORLAUG100 maintained their yield under HS, pointing to a potential success in their introduction in this region for breeding heat-tolerant bread wheat.

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