1. Metabolism of pyruvate and malate by isolated fat-cell mitochondria incubated in the presence of ADP and phosphate has been studied by measuring rates of pyruvate uptake, malate utilization or production, citrate production and oxygen consumption. From these measurements calculations of the flow rates through pyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and citrate cycle have been made under various conditions. 2. In the presence of bicarbonate, pyruvate was largely converted into citrate and malate and only about 10% was oxidized by the citrate cycle; citrate and malate outputs were linear after lag periods of 6–9min and 3min respectively, and no other end products of pyruvate metabolism were detected. On the further addition of malate or hydroxymalonate, the lag in the rate of citrate output was less marked but no net malate disappearance was detected. If, however, bicarbonate was omitted then net malate uptake was observed. Addition of butyl malonate was found to greatly inhibit the metabolism of pyruvate to citrate and malate in the presence of bicarbonate. 3. These results are in agreement with earlier conclusions that in adipose tissue acetyl units for fatty acid synthesis are transferred to the cytoplasm as citrate and that this transfer requires malate presumably for counter transport. They also support the view that oxaloacetate for citrate synthesis is preferentially formed from pyruvate through pyruvate carboxylase rather than malate through malate dehydrogenase and that the mitochondrial metabolism of citrate in fat-cells is restricted. The possible consequences of these conclusions are discussed. 4. Studies on the effects of additions of adenine nucleotides to pyruvate metabolism by isolated fat-cell mitochondria are consistent with inhibition of pyruvate carboxylase in the presence of ADP and pyruvate dehydrogenase in the presence of ATP.

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