1. In incubation mixtures containing digitonin-activated or untreated preparations from rat liver, albumin-solubilized bilirubin as the acceptor substrate and (a) UDP-glucuronic acid, (b) UDP-glucose or (c) UDP-xylose as the sugar donor, formation of the following ester glycosides was demonstrated: with (a), bilirubin β-d-monoglucuronoside, with (b), bilirubin β-d-monoglucoside and with (c), bilirubin monoxyloside or mixtures of the mono-and di-xyloside. 2. With UDP-glucuronic acid prolonged incubation and variation of the composition of the incubation mixtures yielded equimolar amounts of azodipyrrole (I) and azodipyrrole β-d-monoglucuronoside (II) after treatment of the incubation mixtures with the diazonium salt of ethyl anthranilate. The azo-derivatives were identified by t.l.c. by reference to known compounds and by the following chemical tests. After ammonolysis the conjugated azo-derivative (II) yielded d-glucuronic acid and the carboxylic acid amide of azodipyrrole, indicating transfer of a glucuronic acid residue to the carboxylic acid groups of bilirubin. The β-d-configuration of the sugar moiety and binding at C-1 were demonstrated by enzymic hydrolysis tests. 3. Analogous evidence established the structure of the reaction product obtained with UDP-glucose as the sugar donor, as bilirubin β-d-monoglucoside. 4. With UDP-xylose as the sugar donor xylosyl transfer to the carboxylic acid groups of bilirubin with attachment at C-1 was demonstrated in an analogous way. A β-d-configuration is considered very likely, but requires confirmation. 5. Monoxyloside formation was predominant at pH7.4, whereas at decreasing pH values increasing fractions of the substrate were converted into the dixyloside. Prolonged incubation, low concentrations of bilirubin and high concentrations of UDP-xylose favoured diconjugate formation. The available evidence supports the synthesis sequence: bilirubin → bilirubin monoxyloside → bilirubin dixyloside.

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