1. The rate of gluconeogenesis from alanine in the perfused rat liver is affected by the presence of other metabolizable substances, especially fatty acids, ornithine and ethanol. Gluconeogenesis is accelerated by oleate and by ornithine. When both oleate and ornithine were present the acceleration was greater than expected on the basis of mere additive effects. 2. Much NH3 and some urea were formed from alanine when no ornithine was added. With ornithine almost all the nitrogen released from alanine appeared as urea. 3. Lactate was a major product of alanine metabolism. Addition of oleate, and especially of oleate plus ornithine, decreased lactate formation. 4. Ethanol had no major effect on gluconeogenesis from alanine when this was the sole added precursor. Gluconeogenesis was strongly inhibited (87%) when oleate was also added, but ethanol greatly accelerated gluconeogenesis when ornithine was added together with alanine. 5. In the absence of ethanol the alanine carbon and alanine nitrogen removed were essentially recovered in the form of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, NH3 and urea. 6. In the presence of ethanol the balance of both alanine carbon and alanine nitrogen showed substantial deficits. These deficits were largely accounted for by the formation of aspartate and glutamine, the formation of which was increased two- to three-fold. 7. When alanine was replaced by lactate plus NH4Cl, ethanol also caused a major accumulation of amino acids, especially of aspartate and alanine. 8. Earlier apparently discrepant results on the effects of ethanol on gluconeogenesis from alanine are explained by the fact that under well defined conditions ethanol can inhibit, or accelerate, or be without major effect on the rate of gluconeogenesis. 9. It is pointed out that in the synthesis of urea through the ornithine cycle half of the nitrogen must be supplied in the form of asparate and half in the form of carbamoyl phosphate. The accumulation of aspartate and other amino acids suggests that ethanol interferes with the control mechanisms which regulate the stoicheiometric formation of aspartate and carbamoyl phosphate.

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