1. The ribosome content of the rat ventral prostate gland is controlled by the concentrations of circulating androgens and the polyribosomal complement of the total population of ribosomes is acutely dependent on androgenic stimulation. After the administration of testosterone to castrated rats in vivo, there is a pronounced increase in the amounts of heavy (150–240S) polyribosomes. 2. These results are consistent with a pronounced increase in the mRNA and rRNA content of the prostate gland after the administration of testosterone in vivo. 3. From studies conducted both in vitro, the heavy prostate polyribosomes formed after androgenic stimulation are particularly active in protein synthesis. 4. The androgen-stimulated increase in the formation of prostate polyribosomes has a mandatory requirement for sustained RNA and protein synthesis. 5. Since the androgen-mediated increase in prostate polyribosomes may also be suppressed by the concomitant administration of certain anti-androgenic steroids in vivo, the response in polyribosome formation is probably initiated by the binding of a metabolite of testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, in the prostate gland. 6. The relevance of these findings to the pronounced increase in protein synthesis in androgen-dependent tissues after hormonal stimulation is discussed.

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