1. Neither alloxan-diabetes nor starvation affected the rate of glucose production in hepatocytes incubated with lactate, pyruvate, propionate or fructose as substrates. In contrast, glucose synthesis with either alanine or glutamine was increased nearly 3- and 12-fold respectively, in comparison with that in fed rabbits. 2. The addition of amino-oxyacetate resulted in about a 50% decrease in glucose formation from lactate in hepatocytes isolated from fed, alloxan-diabetic and starved rats, suggesting that both mitochondrial and cytosolic forms of rabbit phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase function actively during gluconeogenesis. 3. Alloxan-diabetes resulted in about 2-3-fold stimulation of urea production from either amino acid studied or NH4Cl as NH3 donor, whereas starvation caused a significant increase in the rate of ureogenesis only in the presence of alanine as the source of NH3. 4. As concluded from changes in the [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio, in hepatocytes from diabetic animals the mitochondrial redox state was shifted toward oxidation in comparison with that observed in liver cells isolated from fed rabbits.

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