The nature of the energy source for phosphate transport was studied in strains of Escherichia coli in which either one of the two major systems (PIT, PST) for phosphate transport was present. In the PIT system, phosphate transport is coupled to the proton-motive force. The energy source for the PST system appears to be phosphate-bond energy, as has been found in other systems involving binding proteins. High concentration gradients of phosphate (between 100 and 500) are established by both systems.

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