1. The efficiencies of ferredoxins and flavodoxins from a range of sources as mediators in systems for hydrogen evolution were assessed. 2. In supporting electron transfer from dithionite to hydrogenase of the bacterium Clostridium pasteurianum, highest activity was shown by the ferredoxin from the cyanobacterium Chlorogloeopsis fritschii and flavodoxin from the bacterium Megasphaera elsdenii. The latter was some twenty times as active as comparable concentrations of Methyl Viologen. Ferredoxins from the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans and the red alga Porphyra umbilicalis also showed high activity. 3. In mediating electron transfer from chloroplast membranes to Clostridium pasteurianum hydrogenase the flavodoxin from Anacystis nidulans proved the most active with Nostoc strain MAC flavodoxin and Porphyra umbilicalis ferredoxin also being appreciably more active than other cyanobacterial and higher plant ferredoxins. 4. In both hydrogenase systems the ferredoxin and flavodoxin from the red alga Chondrus crispus and the ferredoxin from another red alga Gigartina stellata showed very low activity. 5. There appeared to be no apparent correlation of efficiency in supporting hydrogenase activity with midpoint redox potential (Em) of the mediators, though some correlation of Em with the efficiency of the mediators in supporting NADP+ photoreduction by chloroplasts, or pyruvate oxidation by a Clostridium pasteurianum system, was evident. 6. Activity of the mediators in the hydrogenase systems therefore primarily reflects differences in tertiary structure conferring differing affinities for the other components of the systems.

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