Extracts of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris, spinach, barley, Dictyostelium discoideum and Escherichia coli form an unknown compound enzymically from adenosine 5′-phosphosulphate in the presence of ammonia. This unknown compound shares the following properties with adenosine 5′-phosphoramidate: molar proportions of constituent parts (1 adenine:1 ribose:1 phosphate:1 ammonia released at low pH), co-electrophoresis in all buffers tested including borate, formation of AMP at low pH through release of ammonia, mass and i.r. spectra and conversion into 5′-AMP by phosphodiesterase. This unknown compound therefore appears to be identical with adenosine 5′-phosphoramidate. The enzyme that catalyses the formation of adenosine 5′-phosphoramidate from ammonia and adenosine 5′-phosphosulphate was purified 1800-fold (to homogeneity) from Chlorella by using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex and Reactive Blue 2–agarose chromatography. The purified enzyme shows one band of protein, coincident with activity, at a position corresponding to 60000–65000 molecular weight, on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, and yields three subunits on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of 26000, 21000 and 17000 molecular weight, consistent with a molecular weight of 64000 for the native enzyme. Isoelectrofocusing yields one band of pI4.2. The pH optimum of the enzyme-catalysed reaction is 8.8. ATP, ADP or adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-phosphosulphate will not replace adenosine 5′-phosphosulphate, and the apparent Km for the last-mentioned compound is 0.82mm. The apparent Km for ammonia (assuming NH3 to be the active species) is about 10mm. A large variety of primary, secondary and tertiary amines or amides will not replace ammonia. One mol.prop. of adenosine 5′-phosphosulphate reacts with 1 mol.prop. of ammonia to yield 1 mol.prop. each of adenosine 5′-phosphoramidate and sulphate; no AMP is found. The highly purified enzyme does not catalyse any of the known reactions of adenosine 5′-phosphosulphate, including those catalysed by ATP sulphurylase, adenosine 5′-phosphosulphate kinase, adenosine 5′-phosphosulphate sulphotransferase or ADP sulphurylase. Adenosine 5′-phosphoramidate is found in old samples of the ammonium salt of adenosine 5′-phosphosulphate and can be formed non-enzymically if adenosine 5′-phosphosulphate and ammonia are boiled. In the non-enzymic reaction both adenosine 5′-phosphoramidate and AMP are formed. Thus the enzyme forms adenosine 5′-phosphoramidate by selectively speeding up an already favoured reaction.
Purification and properties of adenylyl sulphate:ammonia adenylyltransferase from Chlorella catalysing the formation of adenosine 5′-phosphoramidate from adenosine 5′-phosphosulphate and ammonia
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Heinz Fankhauser, Jerome A. Schiff, Leonard J. Garber; Purification and properties of adenylyl sulphate:ammonia adenylyltransferase from Chlorella catalysing the formation of adenosine 5′-phosphoramidate from adenosine 5′-phosphosulphate and ammonia. Biochem J 1 June 1981; 195 (3): 545–560. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bj1950545
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