A direct kinetic analysis is presented of rapid proton-releasing reactions at the outer or C-side of the membrane, in ox heart and rat liver mitochondria, associated with aerobic oxidation of reduced terminal respiratory carriers in the presence of antimycin. Valinomycin plus K+ enhances the rate of cytochrome c oxidation and the rate and extent of H+ release. In the presence of valinomycin the leads to H+/e- ratio, computed on the basis of total electron flow from respiratory carriers to oxygen, varies with pH, remaining always lower than 1, and is unaffected by N-ethylmaleimide. 2-Heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide and 5-(n-undecyl)-6-hydroxy-4,7-dioxobenzothiazole, at concentrations which inhibit in the presence of antimycin the oxygen-induced reduction of b cytochromes, cause also a marked depression of the H+ release associated with aerobic oxidation of terminal respiratory carriers. Aerobic oxidation of the cytochrome system in mitochondria and of isolated b-c1 complex and cytochrome c oxidase results in scalar proton release from ionizable groups (redox Bohr effects). In mitochondria and submitochondrial particles, about 70% of the oxidoreductions of the components of the cytochrome system are linked to scalar proton transfer by ionizable groups. In isolated b-c1 complex scalar proton transfer, resulting from redox Bohr effect, amounts to 0.9H+ per Fe-S protein (190 muT). In isolated cytochrome c oxidase, Bohr protons amount to 0.8 per haem a + a3. The results presented indicate that the H+ release from mitochondria during oxidation of terminal respiratory carriers derives from residual antimycin-insensitive electron flow in the quinone-cytochrome c span and from redox Bohr effects in the b-c1 complex and cytochrome c oxidase. There is no sign of proton pumping by cytochrome oxidase during its transition from the reduced to the active ‘pulsed’ state and the first one or two turnovers.
The mechanism of proton translocation by the cytochrome system of mitochondria. Characterization of proton-transfer reactions associated with oxidoreductions of terminal respiratory carriers
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S Papa, F Guerrieri, G Izzo; The mechanism of proton translocation by the cytochrome system of mitochondria. Characterization of proton-transfer reactions associated with oxidoreductions of terminal respiratory carriers. Biochem J 15 November 1983; 216 (2): 259–272. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bj2160259
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