The activities of lipogenic enzymes, such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glycerolipid synthesis increased significantly in mammary explants of 11-day-pseudopregnant rabbits in response to prolactin, in the presence of near-physiological concentrations of insulin and corticosterone in culture. Increasing the concentration of progesterone in culture resulted in suppression of glycerolipid synthesis and activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, but not the pentose phosphate dehydrogenases. However, at near-physiological concentration of progesterone, only acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity was decreased. Injection of prolactin intraductally into 11-day-pseudopregnant rabbits stimulated glycerolipid synthesis, fatty acid synthesis and enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis, after 3 days. Intraductal injection of progesterone separately or together with prolactin had no significant effect on basal or stimulated lipogenesis in mammary glands. Intramuscular injection of progesterone at 10 mg/day did not suppress fatty acid synthesis stimulated when prolactin was injected intraductally, but a significant inhibition was observed at a higher dose (80 mg/day).

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