Control properties of the gluconeogenic pathway in hepatocytes isolated from starved rats were studied in the presence of glucose. The following observations were made. (1) Glucose stimulated the rate of glucose production from 20 mM-glycerol, from a mixture of 20 mM-lactate and 2 mM-pyruvate, or from pyruvate alone; no stimulation was observed with 20 mM-alanine or 20 mM-dihydroxyacetone. Maximal stimulation was obtained between 2 and 5 mM-glucose, depending on the conditions. At concentrations above 6 mM, gluconeogenesis declined again, so that at 10 mM-glucose the glucose production rate became equal to that in its absence. (2) With glycerol, stimulation of gluconeogenesis by glucose was accompanied by oxidation of cytosolic NADH and reduction of mitochondrial NAD+ and was insensitive to the transaminase inhibitor amino-oxyacetate; this indicated that glucose accelerated the rate of transport of cytosolic reducing equivalents to the mitochondria via the glycerol 1-phosphate shuttle. (3) With lactate plus pyruvate (10:1) as substrates, stimulation of gluconeogenesis by glucose was almost additive to that obtained with glucagon. From an analysis of the effect of glucose on the curves relating gluconeogenic flux and the steady-state intracellular concentrations of gluconeogenic intermediates under various conditions, in the absence and presence of glucagon, it was concluded that addition of glucose stimulated both phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate carboxylase activity.

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