We have examined the effect of diet on the phospholipid composition of the sarcoplasmic reticulum of rabbit muscle. Enriching the diet with corn or fish oil results in significant changes in the fatty acyl chain composition of the various phospholipid classes, with relatively little change in the relative contents of the phospholipids. These alterations in composition have no significant effect on the ATPase activity of vesicles of sarcoplasmic reticulum or on the pattern of Ca2+ uptake and release.

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