Fluorescence techniques have been employed to study the interaction of porcine and equine colipase with pure taurodeoxycholate and mixed micelles. Nitrotyrosine-55 of porcine colipase is obtained by modification with tetranitromethane (low excess, in the presence of taurodeoxycholate) of the protein followed by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. Verification of the residue modified was obtained by h.p.l.c. peptide purification and sequence analysis. Reduction and quantitative reaction with dansyl chloride yields a fluorescent derivative that is twice as active in conjunction with lipase as is native colipase and that exhibits a strong emission band at 550 nm. Addition of micellar concentrations of taurodeoxycholate causes a 4.3-fold increase in the emission maximum as well as a 70 nm blue shift to 480 nm. Inclusion of oleic acid to form a mixed micelle reduces these spectral effects. Scatchard analysis of the data yield a Kd of 6.8 × 10(-4) M and a single colipase-binding site for taurodeoxycholate micelles. The data, by analogy to a phospholipase system, are consistent with a direct insertion of dansyl-NH-tyrosine-55 into the micelle. The presence of a single tryptophan residue (Trp-52) in equine colipase provides an intrinsic fluorescent probe for studying protein-micelle interaction. The emission maximum of horse colipase at 345 nm indicates a solvent-accessible tryptophan residue which becomes less so on binding of micelles. A blue shift of 8 nm and a 2-fold increase in amplitude is indicative of a more hydrophobic environment for tryptophan induced by taurodeoxycholate micelles. There is also a decrease in KSV for acrylamide quenching in the presence of micelles, which further supports a loss of solvent accessibility. The most dramatic pH effects are observed with KI quenching, and may indicate the presence of negative charges near Trp-52.

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