(1) We have prepared murine monoclonal antibodies to the membrane domain of the human erythrocyte anion transport protein (band 3). (2) All of these antibodies react with regions of the protein located at the cytoplasmic surface of the red cell. (3) One of the antibodies reacts with an epitope present on a cytoplasmic loop of the protein located between the C-terminus and a point 168 amino acids from the C-terminus. The other antibodies recognize different epitopes on the C-terminal tail of the protein and the sequences likely to be involved in these epitopes are defined. (4) Our results show that the C-terminus of the red-cell anion transport protein is located on the cytoplasmic side of the red-cell membrane. (5) None of the antibodies inhibited sulphate exchange transport when introduced into resealed red-cell membranes; however, the bivalent form of one of the antibodies reduced the inhibitory potency of 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene disulphonate on sulphate exchange transport in resealed erythrocyte membranes. (6) Immunostaining of human kidney sections with the antibodies showed strong staining of the basolateral membrane of some but not all of the epithelial cells of distal tubules and the initial connecting segment of collecting tubules. With human liver, only the haematopoeitic cells of fetal liver reacted with all the antibodies.

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