1. Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates purified phospholamban. It also phosphorylates phospholamban present in vesicles of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum and smooth muscle microsomal fractions, and in transformants of Escherichia coli which contain a plasmid into which a gene encoding phospholamban has been inserted. 2. In vitro the phospholamban present in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes is a better substrate for cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase than for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. 3. Studies using [32P]Pi to label the cellular ATP in intact cardiac or smooth muscle failed to demonstrate that phosphorylation of phospholamban occurs in response to stimuli which increase intracellular cyclic GMP. Possible reasons for this functional separation between increased cyclic GMP and phosphorylation of phospholamban are discussed.

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