By using the promoter-probe plasmid pIJ424, genomic DNA fragments of Actinomadura R39 were shown to have promoter activity in Streptomyces lividans. The same 100-200-copy-number plasmid was used to clone in S. lividans TK24, the gene that encodes the Actinomadura R39 beta-lactamase. Gene cloning resulted in an amplified expression of the beta-lactamase when compared with the amounts of enzyme produced by the original strain (1 mg versus 0.008 mg.litre of culture-1).

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