When the temperature of exponential-phase cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was abruptly raised from 28 to 40 degrees C, trehalose immediately accumulated, whereas the activities of trehalase and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase complex increased after a lag period of about 10 min. Heat shock also induced a sudden rise in intracellular glucose, simultaneously with a decrease in the concentration of hexose phosphate and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. The increase of trehalose-metabolizing enzymes, but not the accumulation of glucose and trehalose, was prevented by cycloheximide. Investigation of the kinetic properties of partially purified enzymes showed that both non-activated and cyclic AMP-dependent-protein-kinase-activated forms of trehalase are almost inactive in the absence of Ca2+ and that the concentration of free Ca2+ required for half-maximal activity increased with increasing temperature, being approx. 1 microM at 30 degrees C and 20 microM at 40 degrees C for the activated form of trehalase. In contrast, trehalose-6-phosphate synthase and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase were three times more active at 40 degrees C. It is proposed that the rapid accumulation of trehalose induced by heat shock may be in part explained by changes in the kinetic properties of trehalase and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase.

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