The effect of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent phosphorylation and ADP-ribosylation on the activities of the rat liver bifunctional enzyme, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK-2/FBPase-2), was investigated in order to determine the role of the N-terminus in covalent modification of the enzyme. The bifunctional enzyme was demonstrated to be a substrate in vitro for arginine-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase: 2 mol of ADP-ribose was incorporated per mol of subunit. The Km values for NAD+ and PFK-2/FBPase-2 were 14 microM and 0.4 microM respectively. A synthetic peptide (Val-Leu-Gln-Arg-Arg-Arg-Gly-Ser-Ser-Ile-Pro-Gln) corresponding to the site phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase was ADP-ribosylated on all three arginine residues. Analysis of ADP-ribosylation of analogue peptides containing only two arginine residues, with the third replaced by alanine, revealed that ADP-ribosylation occurred predominantly on the two most C-terminal arginine residues. Sequencing of the ADP-ribosylated native enzyme also demonstrated that the preferred sites were at Arg-29 and Arg-30, which are just N-terminal to Ser-32, whose phosphorylation is catalysed by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). ADP-ribosylation was independent of the phosphorylation state of the enzyme. Furthermore, ADP-ribosylation of the enzyme decreased its recognition by liver-specific anti-bifunctional-enzyme antibodies directed to its unique N-terminal region. ADP-ribosylation of PFK-2/FBPase-2 blocked its phosphorylation by PKA, and decreased its PFK-2 activity, but did not alter FBPase-2 activity. In contrast, cAMP-dependent phosphorylation inhibited the kinase and activated the bisphosphatase. These results demonstrate that ADP-ribosylation of arginine residues just N-terminal to the site phosphorylated by PKA modulate PFK-2 activity by an electrostatic and/or steric mechanism which does not involved uncoupling of N- and C-terminal interactions as seen with cAMP-dependent phosphorylation.

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