The changes in the immunological properties of apolipoprotein AI (apo-AI) and AII (apo-AII) during the oxidation of the high-density lipoprotein HDL3 and its influence on the binding of heavily oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to type I and III collagen were investigated. Oxidation of HDL3 or Eu3+-labelled HDL3 was performed with CuSO4, varying the time of oxidation. Oxidation of HDL3 resulted in an increase in lipid hydroperoxides and enhanced the negative charge of this lipoprotein. Immunological studies with a solid-phase sandwich immunoassay revealed a strong increase in binding of Eu3+-labelled HDL3 to polyclonal antibodies against apo-AI and apo-AII within the first 4 h of oxidation. Neo-epitopes were also formed by interaction of the apolipoproteins with degradation products from the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, as evidenced by an immunoreaction of oxidized Eu3+-labelled HDL3 with antibodies to 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)– and malondialdehyde (MDA)–protein adducts. Western blot analysis of oxidized HDL3 samples showed, as well as apo-AI and apo-AII bands, larger aggregated apolipoproteins, occurring after 0.5–2.5 h of oxidation. These aggregates were recognized by antibodies to apo-AI and apo-AII as well as by antibodies to 4-HNE- and MDA-protein adducts. Furthermore the original apo-AI monomers and apo-AII dimers decreased during the oxidation. The ability of native and oxidized HDL3 to prevent the binding of Eu3+-labelled 24 h-oxidized LDL to collagen on microtitration plates was estimated. Interestingly, 2 h-oxidized HDL3 competed most with the binding of 24 h-oxidized LDL on collagen type I and type III, followed by native HDL3. However, 24 h-oxidized HDL3 was a weaker competitor. Thus oxidative modification of HDL3 strongly alters the immunological properties of this lipoprotein and its binding affinity for collagen.
This paper is in remembrance of Professor Walter Petek to whom we are greatly indebted for his valuable inspiration and early cooperation.