Immunohistochemical data on 10 of the 14 small heat-shock (smHSPs) proteins in fourth larval stage and adult Caenorhabditis elegans show that the tissues expressing the greatest number of smHSPs are vulva (HSP12s, HSP43 and, under stress, HSP16s) and spermatheca (HSP12s, HSP25, HSP43 and, under stress, HSP16s). HSP43 is also expressed in male tail structures, and following heat-shock HSP16s are expressed in spermatids and spermatozoa.

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